Plants are commonly recognized as microbiomes—where villages of collaborative microbes live in and on their roots, stems, and leaves, forming interaction networks. These microbial networks of fungi, bacteria, viruses, algae, and more work together with the plants in complex adaptive systems to drive nature’s biogeochemical cycles and influence every aspect of ecosystem structure and function. 6
Visipedia, which powers the iNaturalist app, is an example of a mutual system. Through the app, citizen scientists contribute data to identify plants and animals. In turn, this data improves machine learning models used by expert science communities.